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2. June 2015

 

So a lot has happened in the land of SFML since I created my SFML tutorial series and I decided to check out what’s new.  I happen to be on my Macbook, so Visual Studio wasn’t an option.  Time for a bit of a confession… I hate Xcode, especially for C++ development.  I just find it to be a downright unpleasant, disorganized, unintuitive mess and C++ is a third class citizen.  The alternatives such as Code::Blocks never really appealed to me, and Qt Creator always seems to make you jump through half a hundred extra steps.

 

Thankfully CLion, a cross platform C++ IDE from JetBrains, the makers of IntelliJ, was recently released.  So I decided to kill two birds with one stone…  check out what’s new with SFML and evaluate CLion all at the same time.  This involves setting up the development environment and probably the area where most new C++ game developers fall flat on their faces.

 

So, if you are interested in developing using SFML on Mac using CLion… this post is for you!  We are going to walk through installing SFML and configuring your very first project.

 

Installing SFML

First we need to download and install SFML.  There are two ways to go about this…  first you can head to SFML downloads page, download the Mac OS zip package, extra it, and copy the files to the locations specified in the readme file...

 

… or you can use homebrew.  This is what I did.  Assuming you have homebrew installed, at a terminal simply type:

brew update
brew install sfml


In theory this will download and install all the requisite parts of SFML.  In theory.  If it fails, go back to the manual process.

 

Creating a new project in CLion 

I’m going to assume at this point you’ve already got CLion installed.  If not, it’s available here and can be installed as a 30 day trial.

Once installed, fire up CLion, it’s time for us to create a new project.

 

 

Ss1

 

Select new Project

 

Ss2

 

Name however and wherever you wish, just be sure to remember the location.

 

SS3

In the Project panel, locate CMakeList.txt and double click it.  This file is basically your CMake based project file, which CLion uses for it’s project format, as does SFML.

 

CMakeList.txt will open in the editor, replace with the follow text:

 

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.2)
project(SFMLDemo)

set(CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS "${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} -std=c++11")

set(SOURCE_FILES main.cpp)
add_executable(SFMLDemo ${SOURCE_FILES})

set(CMAKE_MODULE_PATH "${CMAKE_CURRENT_LIST_DIR}/cmake_modules")
find_package(SFML REQUIRED system window graphics network audio)
if (SFML_FOUND)
    include_directories(${SFML_INCLUDE_DIR})
    target_link_libraries(SFMLDemo ${SFML_LIBRARIES})
endif()

 

If you’re going to screw up, this is the part you will screw up.  Let me point out the critical portions here.

 

Ss3 5

 

Make sure your project name is set correctly everywhere I boxed in red.  Also make sure your cmake_modules directory is set right...

 

Oh yeah, about that… make a directory called cmake_modules.  We need to copy this file (FindSFML.cmake) into that folder.  Be sure you save as Raw if downloading from Github and make sure the extension stays cmake, not cmake.txt as Mac OS is found of doing.  Or you could just create a new file called FindSFML.cmake in CLion and copy/paste the contents.  The choice is yours, but in the end your project should look like:

Ss5

 

 

Creating a Run Configuration

 

Now we are ready to run our application.  Select the menu Run->Edit Configuration...

 

Ss4

 

Be sure to set the working directory to you project folder ( or wherever you are going to put assets ), and chose your project as the executable, then hit Apply/OK.

 

You should now be able to run your application using the pulldown at the top of CLion, like so:

Ss6

Use the play icon to run, the bug icon to debug.

 

The default application should run and we should see:

Ss7

 

Now let’s try with some actual SFML code.  Replace the contents of main.cpp with the following:

#include <SFML/Graphics.hpp>

 

 

int main() {

 

    sf::RenderWindow window(sf::VideoMode(640,480,32),"Hello SFML");

 

    sf::Font font;

    font.loadFromFile("OpenSans-Bold.ttf");

 

    sf::Text text("Hello World",font,11);

    text.setCharacterSize(32);

    text.setPosition(window.getSize().x/2 - text.getGlobalBounds().width/2,

                     window.getSize().y/2 - text.getGlobalBounds().height/2);

 

 

    while(window.isOpen()){

 

        sf::Event event;

        while(window.pollEvent(event)) {

            if(event.type == sf::Event::Closed){

                window.close();

            }

 

            window.clear(sf::Color::Black);

            window.draw(text);

            window.display();

        }

    }

    return 0;

}

 

Finally we need the rtf file used in this example, I downloaded it from right here, and copied the file OpenSans-Bold.ttf to the root of our project directory. It is important this matches the run directory you specified earlier.  When run you should now see:

 

Ss8

 

 

There you go, a fully configured, really to run SFML project on MacOS, without an Xcode in sight!  There is one thing to be aware of though… right now the line:

find_package(SFML REQUIRED system window graphics network audio)

Is linking in every single SFML module, needed or not.


10. May 2015

 

 

Just noticed this on Twitter and it proved to be an interesting read.  JetBrains, the makers of IntelliJ, CLion, ReSharper and more, havebook sponsored this free book from O’Reilly Press.  It’s a 74 page book that combines a history lesson, modern introduction and Modern C++ overview all into one.  It’s free and a good read, what’s not to like?

 

 

 

Here is the Table of Contents:

 

1. The Nature of the Beast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2. The Origin Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3. The Beast Wakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4. The Beast Roars Back. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5. Digging Deep on Modern C++. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6. The Future of C++. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

 

 

 

The book is available as a free PDF download directly at this link.  No other actions are required, simply download and read.

 

Even if you are just bored and want a bit of a history lesson and look to the future of C++, this is a good read.  Of course, if you are actually a C++ developer, it will be much more useful.

News


10. May 2015

 

SFML, the Simple and Fast Media Library, just release version 2.3.  SFML is a cross platform C++ based mostly 2D based game library built over top of OpenGL.  Although getting a bit long in the tooth, GameFromScratch created an SFML C++ game dev tutorial series if you are interested in learning more.

 

As to release 2.3, here are the announced changes:

 

SFML 2.3

General
  • Examples only link against sfml-main in release mode (#610, #766)
  • Replaced unsigned int with std::size_t for array indices and sizes (#739)
  • Fixed some issues with the Doxygen documentation (#750)
  • Added support for EditorConfig (#751)
  • Hide success message for CMake in quiet mode (#753)
  • Improved documentation for statuses with sf::Ftp (#763)
  • Moved stb_image into the extlibs directory (#795)
  • Changed the SOVERSION to major.minor (#812)
  • Fixed warnings about switch-statements (#863)
  • Added missing includes in the general headers (#851)
  • [Android] Updated toolchain file and dependencies (#791)
  • [Linux] Fixed missing pthread dependency (#794)
  • [OS X] Relaxed CMake installation rules regarding framework dependencies (#767)

 

Window
Features

 

Bugfixes
  • Fixed glXSwapIntervalSGI being broken for some driver implementations (#727, #779)
  • Fixed simultaneous context operations causing crashes on some AMD hardware (#778, #779)
  • Fixed joystick identification (#809, #811)
  • [iOS] Fixed various issues including stencil bits, device orientation and retina support (#748)
  • [iOS] Fixed inconsistency between sf::Touch::getPosition and touch events (#875)
  • [Linux] Fixed Alt+F4 not getting triggered in window mode (#274)
  • [Linux] Fixed Unix joystick stuff (#838)
  • [OS X] Fixed typo in JoystickImpl.cpp to prevent a crash (#762, #765)
  • [OS X] Fixed an issue in InputImpl::getSFOpenGLViewFromSFMLWindow (#782, #792)

 

Graphics
Features
  • Replaced GLEW with loader generated by glLoadGen (#779)
  • Added a new constructor to sf::Color that takes an sf::Uint32 (#722)
  • Updated stb_image to v2.02 (#777)
  • Updated FreeType to v2.5.5 (#799, #804)
  • Added checks for software OpenGL (#870)

 

Bugfixes
  • Fixed GL_ARB_compatibility not being detected (#859)
  • Fixed pixel format selection (#862)
  • Bumped back the OpenGL version requirement to 1.1 (#858)

 

Audio
Features
  • Dropped libsndfile and started using Vorbis, FLAC and OGG directly (#604, #757)
  • Added a FLAC file to the sound example (#815)

 

Bugfixes
  • Fixed access violation error in the destructor of sf::AudioDevice (#30, #602)
  • [OS X] Fixed threading issue with sf::SoundStream and OpenAL (#541, #831)

 

Network
Bugfixes
  • Fixed sf::TcpSocket not handling partial sends properly (#749, #796)

News


22. November 2014

logo

 

The Urho3D C++ cross platform game engine just released version 1.32.  The following is the change log from this release:

 

 

  • Finalized Urho2D functionality, including 2D physics using Box2D, sprite animation and tile maps
  • Threaded background resource loading. Must be manually triggered via ResourceCache or by loading a scene asynchronously
  • Attribute and material shader parameter animation system
  • Customizable onscreen joystick for mobile platforms. Used in examples
  • Touch camera control in examples on mobile platforms
  • Touch emulation by mouse
  • Multi-touch UI drag support
  • Consistent touch ID’s across platforms
  • Absolute, relative and wrap modes for the operating system mouse cursor
  • Support for connecting & removing joysticks during runtime
  • Negative light & light brightness multiplier support
  • Transform spaces for Node’s translate, rotate & lookat functions
  • Scrollable console
  • Selectable console command interpreter (AngelScript, Lua, FileSystem)
  • Touch scroll in ScrollView & ListView
  • UI layout flex scale mode
  • Custom sound streams from C++
  • LogicComponent C++ base class with virtual update functions similar to ScriptObject
  • Signed distance field font support
  • JSON data support
  • Matrix types in Variant & XML data
  • Intermediate rendertarget refactoring: use viewport size to allow consistent UV addressing
  • ParticleEmitter refactoring: use ParticleEffect resource for consistency with ParticleEmitter2D and more optimal net replication
  • Expose LZ4 compression functions
  • Support various cube map layouts contained in a single image file
  • Configurable Bullet physics stepping behavior. Can use elapsed time limiting, or a variable timestep to use less CPU
  • Default construct math objects to zero / identity
  • Mandatory registration for remote events. Check allowed event only when receiving
  • Teapot & torus builtin objects
  • FXAA 3.11 shader
  • Triangle rendering in DebugRenderer (more efficient than 3 lines)
  • Material/texture quality and anisotropy as command line options and engine startup parameters
  • Spline math class, which the SplinePath component uses
  • Console auto-show on error
  • DrawableProxy2D system for optimizing 2D sprite drawing
  • Possibility to decouple BorderImage border UV’s from element size
  • Editor & NinjaSnowWar resources split into subdirectories
  • UI hover start & end events
  • UI drag cancel by pressing ESC
  • Allowed screen orientations can be controlled. Effective only on iOS
  • Rendering sceneless renderpaths
  • Define individual material passes as SM3-only
  • Support for copying ListView text to system clipboard
  • Async system command execution
  • Generic attribute access for Lua script objects
  • Use Lua functions directly as event subscribers
  • Touch gesture recording and load/save
  • AssetImporter option to allow multiple import of identical meshes
  • Automatically create a physics world component to scene when necessary
  • GetSubimage function in the Image class
  • Possibility to clone existing components from another scene node
  • Improve terrain rendering on mobile devices
  • Refactoring of camera facing modes in BillboardSet & Text3D
  • Additive alpha techniques for particle rendering
  • Possibility to use CustomGeometry component for physics triangle mesh collision
  • Access to 2D node coordinates for convenience when using 2D graphics features
  • Save embedded textures in AssetImporter
  • Use best matching fullscreen resolution if no exact match
  • Use SDL_iPhoneSetAnimationCallback instead of blocking main loop
  • Allow fast partial terrain updates by modifying the heightmap image
  • API for setting image pixels by integer colors
  • Refactor to remove the separate ShortStringHash class
  • Deep clone functionality in Model resource
  • Zone can define a texture which is available to shaders. Not used by default
  • Allow logging from outside the main thread
  • Log warnings for improper attempts to use events from outside main thread
  • Improved CustomGeometry dynamic updates
  • ConvexCast function in PhysicsWorld
  • Screen to world space conversion functions in Viewport class
  • Allow sending client rotation to server in addition to position
  • Allow accessing and modifying the engine’s next timestep
  • DeepEnabled mechanism for disabling node or UI element hierarchies and then restoring their own enabled state
  • Allow to prevent closing a modal window with ESC
  • Per-viewport control of whether debug geometry should render
  • Optional interception of resource requests
  • Readded optional slow & robust mode to AreaAllocator
  • Optionally disable RigidBody mass update to allow fast adding of several CollisionShape components to the same node
  • Runtime synchronization of resource packages from server to client
  • Disable multisample antialiasing momentarily during rendering. Used by default for UI & quad rendering
  • Glyph offset support in Font class
  • Font class internal refactoring
  • Allow to create AngelScript script objects by specifying the interface it implements
  • Window position startup parameters
  • Functions to get time since epoch & modify file’s last modified time
  • Optionally auto-disable child elements of a scroll view when touch scrolling
  • Allocate views permanently per viewport to allow querying for drawables, lights etc. reliably
  • Allow to specify material techniques/passes that should not be used on mobile devices
  • Reduced default shadow mapping issues on mobile devices
  • Minor rendering optimizations
  • Build system: possibility to build Urho3D without networking or 2D graphics functionality
  • Build system: improved generated scripting documentation
  • Build system: improved support for IDE’s in CMake scripts
  • Build system: support up to Android NDK r10c and 64-bit ABIs
  • Build system: numerous other improvements
  • Editor: resource browser
  • Editor: spawn window for random-generating objects
  • Editor: allow either zoom or move from mouse wheel
  • Editor: locate object by doubleclicking node in hierarchy
  • Editor: take screenshots with F11, camera panning
  • Editor: button in value edit fields that allows editing by mouse drag
  • Updated SDL to 2.0.3.
  • Updated AngelScript to 2.29.1
  • Updated assimp
  • Updated Recast/Detour
  • Fix MinGW build issues
  • Fix techniques referring to wrong shaders
  • Fix Node::LookAt() misbehaving in certain situations
  • Fix resize event not reporting correct window size if window is maximized at start
  • Fix PhysicsWorld::GetRigidBodies() not using collision mask
  • Fix zone misassignment issues
  • Fix Lua not returning correctly typed object for UIElement::GetChild() & UIElement::GetParent()
  • Fix uninitialized variables in 2D physics components
  • Fix quad rendering not updating elapsed time uniform
  • Fix forward rendering normal mapping issues by switching calculations back to world space
  • Fix wrong logging level on Android
  • Fix multiple subscribes to same event on Lua
  • Fix missing Octree update in headless mode
  • Fix crash when using FreeType to access font kerning tables
  • Fix ReadString() endless loop if the string does not end
  • Fix shadow mapping on OS X systems with Intel GPU
  • Fix manually positioned bones being serialized properly
  • Fix file checksum calculation on Android
  • Fix accelerometer input on Android when device is flipped 180 degrees
  • Fix missing or misbehaving Lua bindings
  • Fix crashes in physics collision handling when objects are removed during it
  • Fix shader live reload if previous compile resulted in error
  • Fix named manual textures not recreating their GPU resource after device loss
  • Fix skeleton-only model not importing in AssetImporter
  • Fix terrain raycast returning incorrect position/normal
  • Fix animation keyframe timing in AssetImporter if start time is not 0
  • Fix storing Image resources to memory unnecessarily during cube/3D texture loading
  • Fix to node transform dirtying mechanism and the TransformChanged() script function
  • Fix returned documents directory not being writable on iOS
  • Fix click to emptiness not closing a menu
  • Fix FileWatcher notifying when file was still being saved. By default delay notification 1 second
  • Fix .txml import in the editor
  • Fix erroneous raycast to triangles behind the ray
  • Fix crash when multiple AnimatedModels exist in a node and the master model is destroyed
  • Fix missing Matrix4 * Matrix3x4 operator in script
  • Fix various compile warnings that leak to applications using Urho3D
  • Fix DebugHud update possibly being late one frame
  • Fix various macros not being usable outside Urho3D namespace
  • Fix erroneous layout with wordwrap text elements
  • Fix debug geometry rendering on flipped OpenGL viewports
  • Fix kNet debug mode assert with zero sized messages
  • Fix not being able to stop and restart kNet server
  • Fix AreaAllocator operation
  • Fix possible crash with parented rigidbodies
  • Fix missing network delta update if only user variables in a Node have been modified
  • Fix to only search for June 2010 DirectX SDK, as earlier SDK’s will fail
  • Fix wrong search order of added resource paths
  • Fix global anisotropic filtering on OpenGL
  • Fix animation triggers not working if trigger is at animation end
  • Fix CopyFramebuffer shader name not being used correctly on case-sensitive systems
  • Fix UI elements not receiving input when the window containing them is partially outside the screen to the left
  • Fix occlusion rendering not working with counterclockwise triangles
  • Fix material shader parameter animations going out of sync with other animations when the object using the material is not in view
  • Fix CPU count functions on Android

 

You can download the library here.

 

The project homepage is available here.

Programming


16. October 2014

 

GameFromScratch has a long running “A closer look at” series of articles that take a deep dive into a particular game engine.  Hopefully by the end, you the reader will have an idea if this engine is the right fit for you or not.logo

 

Today we are looking at the Urho3D engine, a game engine that somehow flew below my radar for a very long time.  It started life as Bofh3D but apparently was renamed after a tyrannical fish king ( seriously… and thus the fish in the logo to your right! ) According to Google Translate, Urho is Finnish for “Brave”, while 3D… I hope you know that one by this point!  The 3D is a bit of a misnomer though, as like many modern 3D engines, there is a 2D component as well, so you can just as easily make 2D games if that’s what you want to do.

 

Let’s start straight away with their own description:

 

Urho3D is a lightweight, cross-platform 2D and 3D game engine implemented in C++ and released under the MIT license. Greatly inspired by OGRE and Horde3D.

 

Features

  • Direct3D9 or OpenGL rendering (Shader Model 2, OpenGL 2.0 or OpenGL ES 2.0 required as minimum)
  • HLSL or GLSL shaders + caching of HLSL bytecode
  • Configurable rendering pipeline. Default implementations for forward, light pre-pass and deferred rendering
  • Component based scene model
  • Skeletal (with hardware skinning), vertex morph and node animation
  • Automatic instancing on SM3 capable hardware
  • Point, spot and directional lights
  • Shadow mapping for all light types; cascaded shadow maps for directional lights
  • Particle rendering
  • Geomipmapped terrain
  • Static and skinned decals
  • Auxiliary view rendering (reflections etc.)
  • Geometry, material & animation LOD
  • Software rasterized occlusion culling
  • Post-processing
  • HDR renderingv1.31
  • 2D sprites and particles that integrate into the 3D scenev1.31
  • Task-based multithreading
  • Hierarchical performance profiler
  • Scene and object load/save in binary and XML format
  • Keyframe animation of object attributesnew
  • Background loading of resourcesnew
  • Keyboard, mouse, joystick and touch input (if available)
  • Cross-platform support using SDL 2.0 (currently runs on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Android, iOS, and Raspberry Piv1.3)
  • Physics using Bullet
  • 2D physics using Box2Dnew
  • Scripting using AngelScript
  • Alternative script interface using Luav1.3 or LuaJITv1.31 (on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Android, and Raspberry Pi)
  • Networking using kNet + possibility to make HTTP requestsv1.3
  • Pathfinding using Recast/Detourv1.23
  • Image loading using stb_image + DDS / KTX / PVR compressed texture support
  • 2D and “3D” audio playback, Ogg Vorbis support using stb_vorbis + WAV format support
  • TrueType font rendering using FreeType, AngelCode bitmap fonts are also supported
  • Unicode string support
  • Inbuilt UI system
  • Scene editor and UI-layout editor implemented in script with undo & redo capabilities
  • Model/scene/animation/material import from formats supported by Open Asset Import Library
  • Alternative model/animation import from OGRE mesh.xml and skeleton.xml files
  • Supported build tools and IDEs: Visual Studio, Xcode, Eclipse, CodeBlocks, GCC, LLVM/Clang, MinGW-W64
  • Supports both 32-bit and 64-bitv1.3 build
  • Build as single external libraryv1.3 (can be linked against statically or dynamically)

 

The line greatly inspired by Ogre3D seems incredibly accurate to me.  On my initial explorations, that is what it most reminded me of, and that is certainly not an insult.  My nutshell description of Urho3D is:

 

A cross platform, open source, C++ based, Lua and AngelScript scripted game engine that runs on Windows, Mac and Linux and can target all those plus iOS, Android and Raspberry Pi.

 

So the question remains, what’s the developer experience like?  Well, let’s find out!

 

The Source Code

 

Being open source, Urho3D is available on Github.

image

 

I only took a quick browse through the actual code but from what I saw, it’s clean and well written in a modern C++ style.  The project is laid out intuitively, the engine and platforms nicely decoupled and things are pretty much where you would expect them to be.  The code is fairly sparsely commented, but the things that need to be commented, are.  We will touch on the documentation a bit later on.

 

Getting Started

 

Getting started is pretty simple.  Download the source code archive, extract it and use CMake to build the project files for your platform of choice.  I was up and running in a matter of minutes, however I already had all of the required development tools installed and configured.  If you’ve never used CMake before you may be in for a bit of a fight and if something goes wrong, CMake starts to feel strangely like black magic.  For me though, it mostly just worked.  A warning though, download the master branch!  The version linked of their main page is outdated to the point that the documentation doesn’t actually work.  They really should update the official release version so that it matches their getting started manual!

 

Once unzipped, Urho3D looks something like this:

image

 

Simply run the sh or bat file appropriate to your platform and you are good to go.  One thing to be aware of up front, Urho3D has samples in both AngelScript and C++, but by default the C++ projects aren’t created by cmake.  If you want them, when calling the script, add –DURHO3D_SAMPLES=1.  Additionally, Lua support isn’t added out of the box, if you want Lua support as –DURHO3D_LUA=1.

 

So for example, to get started on Windows using Visual Studio 2013, with Lua and C++ sample support, run:

cmake_vs2013.bat –DURHO3D_SAMPLES=1 –DURHO3D_LUA=1

Now if you go into the Build directory, you will see Visual Studio ( or XCode, or Makefile, whatever you chose ) projects.

 

image

 

Simply open Urho3D.sln in Visual Studio and you are done.

 

Samples Samples and More Samples

 

This is one area where Urho3D is well represented.  There are a number of included samples, written in both AngelScript and C++.  Here they are:

 

image

 

For C++, each sample is a project within your solution.  In the case of AngelScript however, each is simply a script file to be run.  Once you’ve built the Engine, you should have a tool named Urho3DPlayer ( or Urho3DPlayer_d if you built for debug ).  This is a command line utility, simply run it and pass in the path to a script to run.  The scripts are located under the Bin folder in the directory /Data/Scripts.

image

 

They are the sample examples as the C++, except of course implemented as AngelScript.

From the command line, in the bin folder, running:

Urho3DPlayer Data\Scripts\11_Physics.as

Will then load and run the script:

image

 

It’s worth noting, I also used the –w switch to run the player in Windowed mode so I could take a screen shot.  Hit ESC to exit.  Oh and Urho3D has annoying behavior of grabbing your mouse cursor, don’t worry when you lose your mouse cursor ( even Windowed ), exit with ESC or alt-tab away and you get your cursor back.  I hate really hate when windowed applications take complete control of my mouse!

 

The code in the samples is well documented, and they cover a wide variety of topics.  This is most likely going to be your primary learning source for getting up to speed quick.

 

To get an idea of a Urho3D application’s structure, let’s take a look at one of the samples, 03_Sprites.  When run, it will do this (except in motion that is):

 

image

 

Now let’s take a look at the corresponding AngelScript and C++ sources.

 

03_Sprites.as

 

// Moving sprites example.
// This sample demonstrates:
//     - Adding Sprite elements to the UI
//     - Storing custom data (sprite velocity) inside UI elements
//     - Handling frame update events in which the sprites are moved

#include "Scripts/Utilities/Sample.as"

// Number of sprites to draw
const uint NUM_SPRITES = 100;

Array<Sprite@> sprites;

void Start()
{
    // Execute the common startup for samples
    SampleStart();

    // Create the sprites to the user interface
    CreateSprites();

    // Hook up to the frame update events
    SubscribeToEvents();
}

void CreateSprites()
{
    // Get rendering window size as floats
    float width = graphics.width;
    float height = graphics.height;

    // Get the Urho3D fish texture
    Texture2D@ decalTex = cache.GetResource("Texture2D", "Textures/UrhoDecal.dds");

    for (uint i = 0; i < NUM_SPRITES; ++i)
    {
        // Create a new sprite, set it to use the texture
        Sprite@ sprite = Sprite();
        sprite.texture = decalTex;

        // The UI root element is as big as the rendering window, set random position within it
        sprite.position = Vector2(Random() * width, Random() * height);

        // Set sprite size & hotspot in its center
        sprite.size = IntVector2(128, 128);
        sprite.hotSpot = IntVector2(64, 64);

        // Set random rotation in degrees and random scale
        sprite.rotation = Random() * 360.0f;
        sprite.SetScale(Random(1.0f) + 0.5f);

        // Set random color and additive blending mode
        sprite.color = Color(Random(0.5f) + 0.5f, Random(0.5f) + 0.5f, Random(0.5f) + 0.5f);
        sprite.blendMode = BLEND_ADD;

        // Add as a child of the root UI element
        ui.root.AddChild(sprite);

        // Store sprite's velocity as a custom variable
        sprite.vars["Velocity"] = Vector2(Random(200.0f) - 100.0f, Random(200.0f) - 100.0f);

        // Store sprites to our own container for easy movement update iteration
        sprites.Push(sprite);
    }
}

void MoveSprites(float timeStep)
{
    float width = graphics.width;
    float height = graphics.height;

    // Go through all sprites
    for (uint i = 0; i < sprites.length; ++i)
    {
        Sprite@ sprite = sprites[i];

        // Rotate
        float newRot = sprite.rotation + timeStep * 30.0f;
        sprite.rotation = newRot;

        // Move, wrap around rendering window edges
        Vector2 newPos = sprite.position + sprite.vars["Velocity"].GetVector2() * timeStep;
        if (newPos.x < 0.0f)
            newPos.x += width;
        if (newPos.x >= width)
            newPos.x -= width;
        if (newPos.y < 0.0f)
            newPos.y += height;
        if (newPos.y >= height)
            newPos.y -= height;
        sprite.position = newPos;
    }
}

void SubscribeToEvents()
{
    // Subscribe HandleUpdate() function for processing update events
    SubscribeToEvent("Update", "HandleUpdate");
}

void HandleUpdate(StringHash eventType, VariantMap& eventData)
{
    // Take the frame time step, which is stored as a float
    float timeStep = eventData["TimeStep"].GetFloat();

    // Move sprites, scale movement with time step
    MoveSprites(timeStep);
}

// Create XML patch instructions for screen joystick layout specific to this sample app
String patchInstructions =
        "<patch>" +
        "    <add sel=\"/element/element[./attribute[@name='Name' and @value='Hat0']]\">" +
        "        <attribute name=\"Is Visible\" value=\"false\" />" +
        "    </add>" +
        "</patch>";

 

And now the C++ versions:

Sprite.h

#pragma once

#include "Sample.h"

/// Moving sprites example.
/// This sample demonstrates:
///     - Adding Sprite elements to the UI
///     - Storing custom data (sprite velocity) inside UI elements
///     - Handling frame update events in which the sprites are moved
class Sprites : public Sample
{
    // Enable type information.
    OBJECT(Sprites);

public:
    /// Construct.
    Sprites(Context* context);

    /// Setup after engine initialization and before running the main loop.
    virtual void Start();

protected:
    /// Return XML patch instructions for screen joystick layout for a specific sample app, if any.
    virtual String GetScreenJoystickPatchString() const { return
        "<patch>"
        "    <add sel=\"/element/element[./attribute[@name='Name' and @value='Hat0']]\">"
        "        <attribute name=\"Is Visible\" value=\"false\" />"
        "    </add>"
        "</patch>";
    }

private:
    /// Construct the sprites.
    void CreateSprites();
    /// Move the sprites using the delta time step given.
    void MoveSprites(float timeStep);
    /// Subscribe to application-wide logic update events.
    void SubscribeToEvents();
    /// Handle the logic update event.
    void HandleUpdate(StringHash eventType, VariantMap& eventData);

    /// Vector to store the sprites for iterating through them.
    Vector<SharedPtr<Sprite> > sprites_;
};

 

Sprite.cpp

#include "CoreEvents.h"
#include "Engine.h"
#include "Graphics.h"
#include "ResourceCache.h"
#include "Sprite.h"
#include "Texture2D.h"
#include "UI.h"

#include "Sprites.h"

#include "DebugNew.h"

// Number of sprites to draw
static const unsigned NUM_SPRITES = 100;

// Custom variable identifier for storing sprite velocity within the UI element
static const StringHash VAR_VELOCITY("Velocity");

DEFINE_APPLICATION_MAIN(Sprites)

Sprites::Sprites(Context* context) :
    Sample(context)
{
}

void Sprites::Start()
{
    // Execute base class startup
    Sample::Start();

    // Create the sprites to the user interface
    CreateSprites();

    // Hook up to the frame update events
    SubscribeToEvents();
}

void Sprites::CreateSprites()
{
    ResourceCache* cache = GetSubsystem<ResourceCache>();
    Graphics* graphics = GetSubsystem<Graphics>();
    UI* ui = GetSubsystem<UI>();

    // Get rendering window size as floats
    float width = (float)graphics->GetWidth();
    float height = (float)graphics->GetHeight();

    // Get the Urho3D fish texture
    Texture2D* decalTex = cache->GetResource<Texture2D>("Textures/UrhoDecal.dds");

    for (unsigned i = 0; i < NUM_SPRITES; ++i)
    {
        // Create a new sprite, set it to use the texture
        SharedPtr<Sprite> sprite(new Sprite(context_));
        sprite->SetTexture(decalTex);

        // The UI root element is as big as the rendering window, set random position within it
        sprite->SetPosition(Vector2(Random() * width, Random() * height));

        // Set sprite size & hotspot in its center
        sprite->SetSize(IntVector2(128, 128));
        sprite->SetHotSpot(IntVector2(64, 64));

        // Set random rotation in degrees and random scale
        sprite->SetRotation(Random() * 360.0f);
        sprite->SetScale(Random(1.0f) + 0.5f);

        // Set random color and additive blending mode
        sprite->SetColor(Color(Random(0.5f) + 0.5f, Random(0.5f) + 0.5f, Random(0.5f) + 0.5f));
        sprite->SetBlendMode(BLEND_ADD);

        // Add as a child of the root UI element
        ui->GetRoot()->AddChild(sprite);

        // Store sprite's velocity as a custom variable
        sprite->SetVar(VAR_VELOCITY, Vector2(Random(200.0f) - 100.0f, Random(200.0f) - 100.0f));

        // Store sprites to our own container for easy movement update iteration
        sprites_.Push(sprite);
    }
}

void Sprites::MoveSprites(float timeStep)
{
    Graphics* graphics = GetSubsystem<Graphics>();
    float width = (float)graphics->GetWidth();
    float height = (float)graphics->GetHeight();

    // Go through all sprites
    for (unsigned i = 0; i < sprites_.Size(); ++i)
    {
        Sprite* sprite = sprites_[i];

        // Rotate
        float newRot = sprite->GetRotation() + timeStep * 30.0f;
        sprite->SetRotation(newRot);
        
        // Move, wrap around rendering window edges
        Vector2 newPos = sprite->GetPosition() + sprite->GetVar(VAR_VELOCITY).GetVector2() * timeStep;
        if (newPos.x_ < 0.0f)
            newPos.x_ += width;
        if (newPos.x_ >= width)
            newPos.x_ -= width;
        if (newPos.y_ < 0.0f)
            newPos.y_ += height;
        if (newPos.y_ >= height)
            newPos.y_ -= height;
        sprite->SetPosition(newPos);
    }
}

void Sprites::SubscribeToEvents()
{
    // Subscribe HandleUpdate() function for processing update events
    SubscribeToEvent(E_UPDATE, HANDLER(Sprites, HandleUpdate));
}

void Sprites::HandleUpdate(StringHash eventType, VariantMap& eventData)
{
    using namespace Update;

    // Take the frame time step, which is stored as a float
    float timeStep = eventData[P_TIMESTEP].GetFloat();
    
    // Move sprites, scale movement with time step
    MoveSprites(timeStep);
}

 

EDIT: And the Lua example as well:

03_Sprites.lua

-- Moving sprites example.
-- This sample demonstrates:
--     - Adding Sprite elements to the UI
--     - Storing custom data (sprite velocity) inside UI elements
--     - Handling frame update events in which the sprites are moved

require "LuaScripts/Utilities/Sample"

local numSprites = 100
local sprites = {}

-- Custom variable identifier for storing sprite velocity within the UI element
local VAR_VELOCITY = StringHash("Velocity")

function Start()
    -- Execute the common startup for samples
    SampleStart()

    -- Create the sprites to the user interface
    CreateSprites()

    -- Hook up to the frame update events
    SubscribeToEvents()
end

function CreateSprites()
    local decalTex = cache:GetResource("Texture2D", "Textures/UrhoDecal.dds")

    local width = graphics.width
    local height = graphics.height

    for i = 1, numSprites do
        -- Create a new sprite, set it to use the texture
        local sprite = Sprite:new()
        sprite.texture = decalTex
        sprite:SetFullImageRect()

        -- The UI root element is as big as the rendering window, set random position within it
        sprite.position = Vector2(Random(width), Random(height))

        -- Set sprite size & hotspot in its center
        sprite:SetSize(128, 128)
        sprite.hotSpot = IntVector2(64, 64)

        -- Set random rotation in degrees and random scale
        sprite.rotation = Random(360.0)
        sprite.scale = Vector2(1.0, 1.0) * (Random(1.0) + 0.5)

        -- Set random color and additive blending mode
        sprite:SetColor(Color(Random(0.5) + 0.5, Random(0.5) + 0.5, Random(0.5) + 0.5, 1.0))
        sprite.blendMode = BLEND_ADD

        -- Add as a child of the root UI element
        ui.root:AddChild(sprite)

        -- Store sprite's velocity as a custom variable
        sprite:SetVar(VAR_VELOCITY, Variant(Vector2(Random(200.0) - 100.0, Random(200.0) - 100.0)))

        table.insert(sprites, sprite)
    end
end

function SubscribeToEvents()
    -- Subscribe HandleUpdate() function for processing update events
    SubscribeToEvent("Update", "HandleUpdate")
end

function MoveSprites(timeStep)
    local width = graphics.width
    local height = graphics.height

    for i = 1, numSprites do
        local sprite = sprites[i]
        sprite.rotation = sprite.rotation + timeStep * 30

        local newPos = sprite.position
        newPos = newPos + sprite:GetVar(VAR_VELOCITY):GetVector2() * timeStep

        if newPos.x >= width then
            newPos.x = newPos.x - width
        elseif newPos.x < 0 then
            newPos.x = newPos.x + width
        end
        if newPos.y >= height then
            newPos.y = newPos.y - height
        elseif newPos.y < 0 then
            newPos.y = newPos.y + height
        end
        sprite.position = newPos
    end
end

function HandleUpdate(eventType, eventData)
    local timeStep = eventData:GetFloat("TimeStep")

    MoveSprites(timeStep)
end

-- Create XML patch instructions for screen joystick layout specific to this sample app
function GetScreenJoystickPatchString()
    return
        "<patch>" ..
        "    <add sel=\"/element/element[./attribute[@name='Name' and @value='Hat0']]\">" ..
        "        <attribute name=\"Is Visible\" value=\"false\" />" ..
        "    </add>" ..
        "</patch>"
end

 

As you can see, the code is clean enough and well enough documented to learn from. Unfortunately there aren't equivalent Lua examples right now.

EDIT: Ok, my bad.  Fortunately there are in fact Lua examples as well!  They were just very well hidden in the /Bin/Data/LuaScript folder.

 

Hello World

 

Urho3D commits a common sin and one that drives me absolutely nuts with game engines.  It’s Hello World, in fact, all of it’s C++ examples are built over a “Sample” class.  This means when the reader wants to start from scratch on their own project, they have to tear through the base class to figure out what goes into a core application.  I get why they do this, so they can focus on the feature they want to show, but at least one example should be as complete as possible with no underlying class to build on.  Fortunately I have done this for you.  The following is basically the “minimum usable” Urho3D application:

 

TestMain.h

#pragma once

#include "Application.h"


using namespace Urho3D;

class TestMain : public Urho3D::Application {
   OBJECT(TestMain);

public:
   TestMain(Urho3D::Context*);

   virtual void Setup();
   virtual void Start();
   virtual void Stop() {}

private:
   void onKeyDown(StringHash,  VariantMap&);

};

 

TestMain.cpp

#include "TestMain.h"
#include "Engine.h"
#include "Graphics.h"
#include "Input.h"
#include "InputEvents.h"
#include "ResourceCache.h"
#include "UI.h"
#include "Font.h"
#include "Text.h"

using namespace Urho3D;

DEFINE_APPLICATION_MAIN(TestMain)

TestMain::TestMain(Urho3D::Context* context) : Application(context){
}

void TestMain::Setup(){
   engineParameters_["FullScreen"] = false;
}

void TestMain::Start(){
   SubscribeToEvent(E_KEYDOWN, HANDLER(TestMain,onKeyDown));

   SharedPtr<Text> text(new Text(context_));
   text->SetText("Hello Cruel World!");
   text->SetColor(Color::WHITE);
   text->SetFont(GetSubsystem<ResourceCache>()->GetResource<Font>("Fonts/BlueHighway.ttf"), 42);
   text->SetHorizontalAlignment(HA_CENTER);
   text->SetVerticalAlignment(VA_CENTER);

   GetSubsystem<UI>()->GetRoot()->AddChild(text);
}

void TestMain::onKeyDown(StringHash event, VariantMap& data){
   engine_->Exit();
}

 

It creates a windowed Hello World application, displays the text “Hello Cruel World” in white, centered to the screen and waits for any key to be pressed before exiting.

While basic, it should give you some idea how Urho3D works.  There are times, like when trying to figure out parameters engineParameters takes that you really wish for better reference documentation, but it was fairly simple to get things up and running.  I did have a bit of a struggle with life cycle, when I tried to put more logic into Setup() instead of Start() but otherwise things mostly worked how I expected.   Speaking of documentation…

 

The Documentation

 

So what’s the documentation like?  It’s split in to two parts, the documentation that has been written covering the various aspects, tasks and systems in Urho3D.  There is also an auto generated class reference. You can read the documentation here.

 

As you can see, most of the major systems are covered:

image

 

The documentation is well written in clear English, and for the most part covers what you would expect it to.  For an open source project I have to say, the overall documentation level is very good.  The only area I was somewhat let down by was the reference material.

 

There is an automatically generated class reference available:

image

But the details are pretty sparse:

image

 

So, for example, if you are hunting down say… what audio formats are supported, this information can be a bit hard to find and may result in you having to jump into the source code.  I do wish there was more implementation specific details in the reference materials.

 

Perhaps I am nit picking at this point…  working so much in Java lately, JavaDoc has really spoiled me.

 

In summary, the documentation is solid, great in fact for an open source project.  I would however appreciate more detail in the reference material.

 

Tools

 

Part of what makes an engine and engine is the tooling it supports.  Urho3D is no exception.  We already mentioned Urho3DPlayer, but there are several other tools, one of which is actually run in the player.  There is a full blown 3D level editor:

image

 

The editor enables you to create and edit several node types:

image

 

And provides context appropriate property editing:

image

 

It’s not going to win any beauty pageants, but it is a full functioning 3D world editor written entirely in AngelScript.  So if it doesn’t have functionality you want, simply add it.  The code is all available in the Bin\Data\Scripts\Editor folder:

image

 

With full code access, you should easily be able to extend the editor to fit whatever type of game you are looking at creating.

 

In addition to the editor, there are a number of other tools.  There is AssetImporter from the Assimp project, for importing 3D assets.  There is also a tool for importing Ogre3D assets.  PackageTool, for pulling your assets all together, a shader compiler, lightmap generator and more.

 

Summary

 

Urho3D is an impressive, well documented, cross platform game engine with clean accessible code and a ton of examples.  There are of course some negatives too.  The tools aren’t nearly as polished as you see in many commercial engines, the reference material could be a bit more extensive and the community isn’t huge.  I can’t speak to performance as I never dove in that deeply.  Is it worth checking out for your own game project?  Well, if control and open source are important to you and you like C++, AngelScript and/or Lua, I would most certainly give it a look. 

 

What do you think, does Urdo3D look interesting to you?  Would you like to see more in depth tutorials from GameFromScratch.com?  Let me know!

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